To achieve a better pressure resistance, hoses can be reinforced with fibers or a steel cord. Commonly used reinforcement methods are braiding, spiraling, knitting and wrapping of fabric plies. The reinforcement increases the pressure resistance but also the stiffness. To obtain flexibility, corrugations or bellows are used. Usually, circumferential or helical reinforcement rings are applied to maintain these corrugated or bellowed structures under internal pressure.
Hoses can be used in water or other liquid environments, or to convey air or other gases. Hoses are used to carry any types of fluids through air or fluid environments, and they are typically used with clamps, spigots, flanges, and nozzles to control fluid flow.